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What does Bhagvad Gita say on the ‘Caste system’?

Bhagvad Gita says qualities and values decide the ‘Varna’ of a person. There is absolutely no mention of birth or caste.
Five verses on the subject are discussed here.

चातुर्वर्ण्यंमयासृष्टंगुणकर्मविभागशः। तस्यकर्तारमपिमांविद्ध्यकर्तारमव्ययम्॥४-१३॥
Bg 4.13— According to the three modes of material nature and the work associated with them, the four divisions of human society are created by Me. And although I am the creator of this system, you should know that I am yet the non-doer, being unchangeable.
What are the three modes of material nature? Before moving ahead we need to understand what the three mode of material nature are.
Understanding the Satv, Rajas and Tamas Gun.
Material nature consists of three modes. When eternal living entity (soul) comes in contact with nature, he becomes conditioned by these modes. These modes are Saatvik or Goodness, Rajsik or Passion and Tamsik or Ignorance.

Bhagvad Gita & Satv-Rajas-Tamas Gun

According to Vedic literature, nature consist of 'Teen Gun' or three qualities. Just as a painter mixes colors to produce innumerable shades, so also the creator has mixed the three qualities to produce this universe with all its varieties and shades.  Bhagvad Gita describes Human nature and personalities  based on this model. One can judge himself & others based on this framework. 

Nature is said to exist in three states. Saatvik, Rajsik & Tamsik.

Saatvik quality does not produce sins but it produces Punya. Person feels happy and fulfilled in life. This state is conducive for the development of spiritual knowledge.
It is a state of action motivated by intense desires. Person is bound by intricacies of never ending  positive and negative Karma.
It is a state of inertia or action in ignorance. Person does not get even short term happiness.   
Twelve types of actions, interests, opinions etc. are described based on the three qualities of nature.

Swami Satchidananda,

1969, Addressing People During Opening of The Woodstock Music Festival In Bethel, New York
About SwamiSwami Satchidananda, (22 December 1914 – 19 August 2002) was an Indian religious teacher, spiritual master and yoga teacher, who gained fame and following in the West. He was the author of philosophical and spiritual books. He updated traditional handbooks of yoga such as the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Bhagwad Gita for modern readers. After study at agricultural college, he worked in a family business. At the age of 23 he became a manager at India's National Electric Works. He married and had two sons. He briefly served with the Indian defense forces and was a WW2 veteran who saw combat. His wife died five years after their marriage. After the sudden death of his wife, Ramaswamy travelled throughout India, meditating at holy shrines and studying with revered spiritual teachers. He discovered his Guru, Sivanand Sarasvati founder of the Divine Life Society and a former physician, …

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